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Décès de Serge Dassault, à la tête d’un groupe industriel français emblématique

mardi 24 juillet 2018, par bp

L’industriel et sénateur Serge Dassault est décédé lundi 28 mai à l’âge de 93 ans. Succédant à son père en 1987, il aura favorisé l’expansion du groupe aéronautique Dassault.

Dans le paysage aéronautique mondial, elle fait figure d’exception. Quelle autre entreprise familiale que Dassault Aviation peut se targuer de savoir fabriquer de A à Z des avions de combat et des jets d’affaires ? Une singularité industrielle, à l’heure où les grands groupes sont la règle, bâtie par Marcel Dassault et que son fils, Serge Dassault, aura renforcée. Le dirigeant qui avait pris la tête du groupe en 1987 est décédé lundi 28 mai à l’âge de 93 ans, "à son bureau du Rond-Point des Champs-Élysées Marcel-Dassault, par suite d’une défaillance cardiaque", comme le précise Le Figaro, journal dont il était propriétaire.

Plus de 2 100 avions Falcon et plus de 1 000 avions de combat en service, 11 400 salariés, 25% de parts dans le groupe d’électronique et de défense Thales, une présence dans 80 pays via une dizaine de filiales, un chiffre d’affaires de 4,8 milliards d’euros en 2017 dont 89% à l’export… Le constructeur aéronautique français fondé en 1929 par Marcel Bloch – il ne prendra le nom de Dassault qu’en 1949 – qui développe à cette époque la fameuse hélice Eclair a fait du chemin.

Un modèle unique dans l’industrie française
Né le 4 avril 1925, Serge Dassault entre en 1951 dans l’entreprise de son père, après des études menées à l’Ecole polytechnique puis à l’Ecole nationale supérieure de l’aéronautique et de l’espace (SUPAERO). Ses premiers pas dans l’entreprise paternelle s’effectuent à la "Générale Aéronautique Marcel Dassault", en tant qu’ingénieur au bureau d’études des avions de série. Sa carrière au sein du groupe prend une nouvelle tournure lorsqu’en 1955 il est nommé directeur des essais en vol, puis lance le Mystère 20 en 1962.

Alors qu’il mène en parallèle une carrière politique débutée dans les années 70 et qu’il entretient des relations complexes avec son père, Serge Dassault succède à ce dernier à sa mort en 1987, en devenant président-directeur général de Dassault Industries (qui deviendra le Groupe Dassault). Il prendra alors les rênes d’un groupe qui excellera dans un exercice de funambulisme unique, mêlant les technologies de pointe d’un Dassault Sytèmes (à l’origine du logiciel de conception Catia) et d’un Rafale, entres autres, et la préservation d’un modèle familial paternaliste vantant un très faible turn-over des salariés.

Des scandales politiques
Exemple de ce modèle hors du commun : l’an passé, Dassault Aviation a versé 99 millions d’euros en participation et intéressement à ses salariés, contre 127 millions d’euros de dividendes à ses actionnaires. Malgré le caractère familial entretenu par l’équipe dirigeante, le groupe aura su mener son internationalisation dès les années 70 avec notamment l’implantation américaine de Little Rock (Arkansas) dédiée à l’aménagement des avions d’affaires, qui a été agrandie en 2015.

Reste que la trajectoire de l’industriel a été ternie par celle de l’homme politique. Serge Dassault, maire de Corbeil-Essonnes de 1995 à 2009 et sénateur de 2004 à 2017, a fait face à de nombreux soupçons liés à des affaires d’achat de votes ou de blanchiment d’argent. En 2017, le dirigeant a été condamné à cinq ans d’inéligibilité et deux millions d’euros d’amende pour avoir dissimulé au fisc des dizaines de millions d’euros.

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